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Bacteriophage Conjugates: The Effect of Coupling Reaction and Specific Antibodies on the Kinetics of Inactivation and Reactivation

Authors
  • Mossmann, Horst
  • Hammer, Dietrich K.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C
Publisher
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Publication Date
Feb 01, 1973
Volume
28
Issue
1-2
Pages
83–90
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/znc-1973-1-215
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

The reaction of bacteriophage T4 with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene resulted in a covalent binding of 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) determinants to the phage. From the kinetics of inactivation reflecting the coupling process it is concluded that attachment of more than one DNP group to the critical site(s) of the phage is required for inactivation (multi-hit reaction). Contrary to this the neutralization of DNP-T4 by anti-DNP antibody turned out to be a first order reaction, until 80 %> neutralization fitting one-hit kinetics. If compared with native T4, the susceptibility of DNP-T4 to neutralization by anti-T4 antibody is considerably higher, indicating that attachment of DNP groups to T4 amplifies the sensitivity to neutralization by anti-T4. Comparing neutralization kinetics of DNP-T4 and native T4 by anti-DNP-T4 antibody it is suggested that native determinants and DNP groups, as well as determinants resulting from alteration due to the coupling process, all together may contribute as targets for neutralization. Three characteristics strengthen the view that the velocity of T4 conjugates in infecting the host strain is markedly decreased if compared with that of native T4: (a) considerable discrepancy between direct plating and decision technique (b) increasing variety of plaque size and (c) decreased velocity of the first step of reproduction. The kinetics of neutralization observed can be reconciled with a model proposed by Krummel and Uhr. The kinetics of reactivation of neutralized DNP-T4 by the presence cf DNP-BSA has been investigated and the problems involved in the reaction are discussed.

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