Jellyfish blooms have increased worldwide, and the outbreaks of jellyfish population not only affect the food web structures via voracious predation but also play an important role in the dynamics of nutrients and oxygen in planktonic food webs. However, it remains unclear whether specific carbon compounds released through jellyfish metabolic processes have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the compositional succession of the bacterioplankton community in response to the dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by the live Scyphomedusae Cyanea lamarckii and Chrysaora hysoscella collected from Helgoland Roads of the North Sea. The bacterial community was significantly stimulated by the DOM released form live jellyfish and different dominant phylotypes were observed for these two Scyphomedusae species. Furthermore, the bacterial community structures in the different DOM sources, jellyfish-incubated media, Kabeltonne seawater, and artificial seawater (DOM-free) were significantly different, as revealed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis fingerprints. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) revealed a rapid species-specific shift in bacterial community composition. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the community instead of the Bacteroidetes community for C. lamarckii, whereas Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community for C. hysoscella. The significant differences in the bacterial community composition and succession indicate that the components of the DOM released by jellyfish might differ with jellyfish species.