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Babesiosis: Current status and future perspectives in Pakistan and chemotherapy used in livestock and pet animals.

Authors
  • Azhar, Muhammad1
  • Gadahi, Javaid Ali1
  • Bhutto, Bachal1
  • Tunio, Sambreena2
  • Vistro, Waseem Ali3
  • Tunio, Haleema4
  • Bhutto, Sahar5
  • Ram, Teerath6
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 2 Department of Animal Product Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 3 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 4 Department of Poultry Husbandry, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 5 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
  • 6 Department of Animal Nutrition, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. , (Pakistan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Heliyon
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2023
Volume
9
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17172
PMID: 37441378
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Babesiosis is a protozoal disease affect livestock and pet animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs, and cats. It causes severe economic losses in livestock as well as in pet animals. A large number of dairy animals are imported in order to fulfill the demands of milk, milk, meat and its products. In addition, different pet animals are transported from Pakistan to various parts of the world, therefore, it is important to identify the current status and distribution of babesiosis throughout Pakistan in order to control the disease and draw attention for future research, diagnosis, treatment and control of this diseases. No work has been done on a complete review on up-to-date on blood protozoal disease burden in Pakistan. This article will provide about the complete background of babesiosis in ruminants, equines and pet animals, its current status, distribution, vectors in Pakistan and allopathic and ethnoveterinary treatments used against babesiosis. Babesiosis may be subclinical (apparently normal) and may be clinical with acute to chronic disease and sometimes fatal. Babesia is found and develops inside the erythrocytes (red blood cells). Clinically, it causes fever, fatigue, lethargy, pallor mucus membranes, malaise, cachexia, respiratory distress, jaundice, icterus, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, lymphadenopathy, chollangocytitis, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. Chemotherapy for babesiosis includes Imidocarb dipropionate, Diaminazine aceturate Atovaquone and Bupravaquone, Azithromycin, Quinuronium sulfate and Amicarbalidesio-thionate are most widely used. Supportive therapy includes multivitamins, fluid therapy, antipyretics intravenous fluids, and blood transfusions are used if necessary. In addition, there are certain ethnoveterinary (homeopathic) ingredients which having anti-babesial activity. As the resistance against these drugs is developing every day. New more specific long-lasting drugs should be developed for the treatment of Babesiosis. Further studies should be done on disease genome of different species of Babesia for vaccine development like malarial parasites. © 2023 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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