Abstract Aim of this study Gochnatia polymorpha ssp. floccosa (Asteraceae), popularly known as “cambará”, is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine to treat the respiratory tract inflammatory diseases and rheumatism. However, no scientific data have been published to support this ethnopharmacological use. This work aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of its ethanol (EEGP) extract, ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DCM), petroleum ether (PE) butanolic (BT) fractions, and the isolated compounds bauerenyl acetate (GPC1) and 11,13-dihydrozaluzanin C (GPC2). Materials and methods The anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in mice subjected to paw oedema and carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation models. Results The oral administration of EEGP (30, 100 and 300mg/kg), DCM (50mg/kg), BT (20mg/kg) and GPC2 (10 and 30mg/kg), but not EP and EA fractions (both at 30mg/kg) and GPC1 (1 and 10mg/kg), significantly inhibited the paw oedema induced by carrageenan (41±13, 39±5 and 60±10% for EEGP at the three doses, respectively; 44,47±12.8 and 70.19±11.52% for DCM and BT, respectively; and 29.52±4.8 and 31.67±5.4%, for 11,13-dihydrozaluzanin C at 10 and 30mg/kg, respectively) compared to control group. The oral administration of EEGP (30, 100 and 300mg/kg) inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration in the air pouch model (37.2±12.5, 62.6±5.0 and 54.3±6.8%, respectively), as well as protein extravasation (47.9±12.5, 51.7±15.2 and 60.9±13.7%, respectively) compared to control group. In a similar way, DCM (50mg/kg) or GPC2 (10mg/kg), but not BT (20mg/kg) given by oral route inhibited leukocyte infiltration into the pouch (29.5±10.6 and 54.4±21.8%, respectively). Also DCM and GPC2 significantly reduced the protein levels in the supernatants (52.4±15.0 and 51.83±16.9%, respectively). Conclusion The results suggest that EEGP, and BT and DCM fractions from G. polymorpha possess anti-inflammatory activity and probably the compound 11,13-dihydrozaluzanin C was responsible, at least in part, for this action.