Highlights ► Composite particle of MoSi2/rare earth oxide as a dopant was added in molybdenum. ► We studied microstructure and properties of hot-rolled 2.0wt.% MoSi2/rare earth oxide doped molybdenum alloys. ► Microstructure of molybdenum alloys is characterized by elongated grains. ► The composite particles are distributed in the grain interior and at grain boundaries and have granular and rod-like morphologies. ► The mechanical properties of molybdenum alloys are greatly improved, especially tensile strength at high temperature.