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The effects of adaptive feedback on student performance, feedback study time, and lesson efficiency within computer-based instruction

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an instructional treatment that presented adaptive feedback based on students' self-perceptions about their answer correctness (response certitude) with a non-adaptive treatment, upon student performance, feedback study time, and lesson efficiency. The treatments were designed to teach verbal information and defined concept tasks using a computer-based delivery system. Undergraduates enrolled in two classes of introductory educational psychology were randomly assigned to one of two treatments--one in which the amount of feedback information varied according to a combined assessment of response correctness and the student's response certitude, and another in which the feedback information did not vary. Results indicate that effects of adaptive feedback were not significantly different from the effects of non-adaptive feedback on either verbal information or concept portions of an immediate posttest. In the adaptive group, low certitude responses received significantly more feedback study time than high certitude/wrong responses, and high certitude/corrects received significantly less feedback study time than either low certitude responses or high certitude/errors. In terms of feedback efficiency alone, adaptive feedback was significantly more efficient than non-adaptive feedback, but for overall lesson efficiency, non-adaptive feedback was significantly more efficient. A significantly greater number of high certitude errors occurred than low certitude errors, but high certitude/fine discriminations errors occurred significantly more often than high certitude/gross discrimination errors. There were no significant differences between the adaptive and non-adaptive treatments for the conditional probability of a posttest correct given an error in the practice. Confirmatory patterns of feedback were observed in a majority of cases. New errors tended to occur about twice as often as would be expected from former st

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