Abstract Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a biomarker for lipid peroxidation, and studies of sensitive and selective analytical methods for it are very important for pathological research. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a novel HPLC method for the quantification of MDA in biological fluids using rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) as the derivatization reagent. After pretreatment and derivatization in acid medium at 50°C for 40min, the RBH-derivatized MDA was separated on a Kromasil C18 column at 25°C and detected by a fluorescence detector at excitation wavelength of 560nm and emission wavelength of 580nm. The results showed linearity in the range of 0.8–1500.0nM with a detection limit of 0.25nM (S/N = 3). The recovery of MDA from plasma and urine was 91.50 to 99.20%, with a relative standard deviation range of 1.45 to 3.26%. In comparison to other methods reported for the determination of MDA, the proposed method showed superiority in simplicity, more sensitivity, shorter derivatization time, and less interference. The developed method was applied to quantification of MDA in human biological fluids collected from five volunteers with a concentration range of 24.62–245.00nM.