Abstract Human erythrocyte adenyl and pyridine nucleotide production has been tested in cell-free lysates and in intact cells. The main products obtained in cells incubated with adenine and nicotinic acid are adenosine triphosphate and nicotinate mononucleotide, respectively, under any experimental condition used (incubation time, base concentration). Adenine-phosphoribosyltransferase activity determined in crude lysates is about 100 times higher than nicotinate-phosphoribosyltransferase activity, while cellular adenyl nucleotide production is only three times higher than that of pyridine nucleotide. A strong intracellular regulation for the former, but not latter, synthetic process is thus suggested. Intact erythrocyte nicotinate nucleotide production is inhibited by adenine, while nicotinate-phosphoribosyltransferase activity is not. The possible regulation by adenyl nucleotides is discussed in light of the modulating action of ATP on nicotinate-phosphoribosyltransferase activity. The kinetic characteristics of both adenine- and nicotinate-phosphoribosyltransferases, determined on crude lysates, are reported.