Abstract Combined proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to study the composition of the venom of Thalassophryne nattereri venomous fish revealed the primary structures of the major toxins as a family of proteases natterins, never described on venoms and a C-type lectin nattectin. To gain new insights into the mechanisms of venom pathogenesis and to further elucidate the role of its major toxins, the natterins and nattectin, we undertook in vitro investigations using these isolated toxins. Here we demonstrated the specific ability of the nattectin to bind types I and V collagen and natterins to bind and cleave type I collagen as well as type IV collagen, disrupting cell attachment and HeLa cells survival. Natterins have cytotoxic effect on both adherent cells or at in suspension, showing direct induction of necrosis that is followed by cell detachment. Nattectin improves integrin-mediated HeLa cell adhesion and resistance to apoptosis by its binding to RGD-dependent integrins, especially the β1 subunit. Based on our studies we now report that extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as the integrin β1 subunit are targets for the natterins and nattectin. The ECM degradation or remodeling activities exerted by these toxins affect cell–cell and cell–ECM adhesion and survival and impair inflammatory cell migration into inflamed tissues.