Abstract The high mobility group proteins A2 (HMGA2) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, in particular during embryogenesis. Here, we used Xenopus laevis to analyze HMGA2 gene expression patterns during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. We found two functional XlHMGA2 isoforms, which we named XlHMGA2 α and XlHMGA2 β. As revealed by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization both mRNAs are maternally produced and stored in eggs. Whole-mount in situ hybridizations revealed a conspicuous redistribution of the XlHMGA2 transcripts during early embryogenesis. Initially, during oogenesis and in eggs, the transcripts are uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. With activation of the eggs the transcripts accumulate near the animal pole and remain in the juxtanuclear regions of animal pole blastomeres until midblastula transition. According to real-time PCR data, XlHMGA2 α appears to be preferentially expressed during oogenesis and after midblastula transition, whereas XlHMGA2 β expression predominates after neurulation, suggesting an individual transcriptional regulation.