Abstract FSH in vitro , but not LH, increased the O 2 uptake of isolated granulosa cells from 23 day old rats previously treated with DES or with DES and FSH. Dose response studies showed that the cells were most sensitive to FSH when the cellular binding of FSH was highest. LH increased the O 2 uptake of granulosa cells of untreated 30 day old rats. DES treatment inhibited the LH induced rise in O 2 uptake when the rats were implanted with DES capsules unless FSH was injected to induce LH receptors. Addition of dbcAMP in vitro increased O 2 uptake of granulosa cells from 30 day old rats at concentrations 10X lower than those required to stimulate O 2 uptake in cells from 23 day old rats treated with DES alone. FSH in vitro increased lactate formation in the absence of added substrates but did not do so when glucose was added to the media. In contrast, LH greatly increased lactate formation with added glucose. Dose response studies showed that less than 0.6 ug/ml LH S21 was effective in increasing lactate above control levels. These data suggest that FSH affects aerobic pathways while LH affects anaerobic pathways in the process of the differentiation of granulosa cells toward luteal cells. It is well known that FSH and LH interact with their target cells in the ovary by binding to specific receptors and that FSH stimulates LH-receptor production (1). Receptor binding by either hormone activates adenylate cyclase (2) raising cyclic adenosine monosphosphate (cAMP) levels (3) and increasing protein kinase activity (4). Such changes probably trigger changes in the major metabolic pathways that support follicular development because cells of corpora lutea have glycogen (5) which is not present in follicular granulosa cells (6–9). Several studies suggest that FSH and LH may regulate metabolic processes in the ovary. LH increases lactate in whole prepuberal ovaries (10,11,12) and also increases the uptake of glucose (13). FSH increases oxygen uptake in chick ovaries (14), rat ovaries (15) and prairie dog ovaries (16). However, only one study has been done using isolated ovarian cells. Hamberger (17) has reported that FSH increased the oxygen uptake of thecal cells of immature rats while LH increased the oxygen uptake of granulosa cells. Since granulosa cells from immature rats are reported to have FSH receptors while theca cells have LH receptors the effects of these hormones appear unclear. The present studies were undertaken to more accurately characterize the actions of FSH, LH, and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) on the oxygen uptake of isolated granulosa cells and remaining tissues of immature ovaries and to determine the effects of FSH and LH on the production of lactate by granulosa cells.