Abstract 43Ca NMR experiments of Ca2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) were performed in the presence and absence of the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine (TFP). By making use of the shift reagent Dy(PPP)27− (a 1:2 complex of DyCl3 and Na5P3O10) we have succeeded in separating the 43Ca resonances of protein-bound Ca2+ and free Ca2+ in the otherwise unresolved spectra. This experimental strategy has allowed us to demonstrate unequivocally that the affinity of CaM for Ca2+ is markedly increased in the presence of TFP. Thus Ca2+ is not liberated from the protein upon addition of TFP as had been suggested based on earlier43Ca NMR experiments (Shimizu, T., Hatano, M., Nagao, S. and Nozawa, Y. (1982), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 106, 1112–1118).