Rabbit antisera to the human B-cell-specific antigen complex, p23,30, was used to define further the functional heterogeneity of isolated human lymphocyte subpopulations. Specific depletion of p23,30-bearing cells from Ig-negative cell populations and Ig-negative, E rosette- negative (Null) populations by either complement-mediated lysis or by physical separation on goat antirabbit Fab immunoabsorbent columns, eliminates the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) function. Furthermore, binding of anti-p23,30 serum to the effector cell surface inhibits ADCC but does not interfere with EA rosette formation. Apparently p23,30 represents a cell surface site which is distinct from the Fc receptor but which is important in the triggering of ADCC. In addition, depletion of p23,30-bearing cells from unfractionated cell populations, Ig-positive B-cell populations and Ig-negative, E rosette- negative (Null) populations eliminates the capacity of these populations to secrete immunoglobulin during subsequent culturing. Thus both the Ig-secreting cells and the ADCC effector cells within the Ig- negative, E rosette-negative (Null) population reside in the same population of cells which bears the p23,30 antigen.