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Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and endometrial and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Authors
Publication Date
Keywords
  • Long-Term Consumption Of A High Glycaemic Index (Gi) Or Glycaemic Load (Gl) Diet May Lead To Chronic
  • Which Is A Potential Risk Factor For Cancer
  • To Date
  • Many Studies Have Examined The Association Between Gi
  • Gl And Cancer Risk
  • Although Results Have Been Inconsistent
  • Therefore Our Objective Was To Conduct A Systematic Review Of The Literature
  • Medline And Embase Were Systematically Searched Using Terms For Gi
  • Gl And Cancer To Identify Studies Published Before December 2007
  • Random Effects Meta-Analyses Were Performed For Endometrial Cancer
  • Combining Maximally Adjusted Results That Compared Risk For Those In The Highest Versus The Lowest C
  • Separate Analysis Examined Risk By Body Mass Index Categories
  • Five Studies Examining Gi And/Or Gl Intake And Endometrial Cancer Risk Were Identified
  • Pooled Effect Estimates For Endometrial Cancer Showed An Increased Risk For High Gl Consumers (Rr 1
  • 20
  • 95% Ci: 1
  • 06-1
  • 37)
  • Further Elevated In Obese Women (Rr 1
  • 54
  • 95% Ci: 1
  • 18-2
  • 03)
  • No Significant Associations Were Observed For Gi
  • Only Two Studies Examined Ovarian Cancer And Therefore No Meta-Analysis Was Performed
  • But Results Indicate Positive Associations For Gl Also
  • A High Gl
  • But Not A High Gi
  • Diet Is Positively Associated With The Risk Of Endometrial Cancer
  • Particularly Among Obese Women
  • © 2008 Cancer Research Uk All Rights Reserved
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

Chapter 2 Androgen Action During Prostate Carcinogenesis Diping Wang and Donald J. Tindall Abstract Androgens are critical for normal prostate development and function, as well as prostate cancer initiation and progression. Androgens function mainly by regulating target gene expression through the androgen receptor (AR). Many studies have shown that androgen-AR signaling exerts actions on key events during prostate carcinogenesis. In this review, androgen action in distinct aspects of prostate carcinogenesis, including (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell apoptosis, and (iii) prostate cancer metastasis will be discussed. Key words: Androgen receptor, prostate cancer, androgen metabolism, androgen signaling, castration-resistant prostate cancer. 1. Androgen Signaling Androgens are the male sex hormones, which control the differ- entiation and maturation of male reproductive organs, including the prostate gland. Testosterone is the principal androgen in cir- culation and is synthesized by Leydig cells in the testes, under the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is further regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Adrenal glands also synthesize a small amount of androgens, such as dehy- droepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (4-dione) (1). Testosterone enters prostate cells by passive diffusion, where it is converted enzymatically by 5-α reductases to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (2). Binding of androgens to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-modulated transcrip- tion factor, induces a conformational change in the AR, causing release of heat shock proteins and translocation of the AR to the F. Saatcioglu (ed.), Androgen Action, Methods in Molecular Biology 776, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 25 26 Wang and Tindall nucleus, where it transcriptionally regulates the expression of tar- get genes (3). In addition to the classic genomic effects of sex steroids, accu- mulating

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