Abstract The total area of mangroves in Kampuchea is estimated at 37 000 ha, the most important concentration of which is located north of Koh Kong, in a rectangle 8 km × 20 km. The dominant species are Rhizophora conjugata, R. mucronata, and Avecennia spp., Bruguiera spp. and Ceriops spp. Large quantities of mangrove are used in the production of firewood and charcoal for domestic consumption. Little is known about how much the mangrove forest affects the production of fish. However, the practice of active aquaculture is insignificant at this time. In some areas where mangrove forest has been reclaimed for agricultural use, coconut, pineapple, rice, and black pepper have been planted. There is no apparent population pressure on the mangrove forest, but this fact does not mean that the forest has not been abused. Some areas have been reduced to low shrubs of no value. A well formulated land-use scheme should be developed for the mangrove forests.