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Diel vertical migration of Arctic zooplankton during the polar night

Authors
Journal
Biology Letters
1744-9561
Publisher
The Royal Society
Publication Date
Volume
5
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0484
Keywords
  • Research Article
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Musicology
  • Physics

Abstract

High-latitude environments show extreme seasonal variation in physical and biological variables. The classic paradigm of Arctic marine ecosystems holds that most biological processes slow down or cease during the polar night. One key process that is generally assumed to cease during winter is diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton. DVM constitutes the largest synchronized movement of biomass on the planet, and is of paramount importance for marine ecosystem function and carbon cycling. Here we present acoustic data that demonstrate a synchronized DVM behaviour of zooplankton that continues throughout the Arctic winter, in both open and ice-covered waters. We argue that even during the polar night, DVM is regulated by diel variations in solar and lunar illumination, which are at intensities far below the threshold of human perception. We also demonstrate that winter DVM is stronger in open waters compared with ice-covered waters. This suggests that the biologically mediated vertical flux of carbon will increase if there is a continued retreat of the Arctic winter sea ice cover.

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