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En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

Annals of Physics
DOI: 10.1016/j.aop.2014.07.023
  • Quantization Of Gravity
  • Non-Perturbative Renormalization Of Gravity
  • Asymptotic Safety
  • Background Independence
  • Effective Average Action For Gravity
  • Functional Renormalization Group
  • Astronomy
  • Physics


Abstract The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the non-invariant functional RG equation. As an application, we compute the scale dependent spectral dimension which governs the fractal properties of the effective QEG spacetimes at the bi-metric level. Earlier tests of the Asymptotic Safety conjecture almost exclusively employed ‘single-metric truncations’ which are blind towards the difference between quantum and background fields. We explore in detail under which conditions they can be reliable, and we discuss how the single-metric based picture of Asymptotic Safety needs to be revised in the light of the new results. We shall conclude that the next generation of truncations for quantitatively precise predictions (of critical exponents, for instance) is bound to be of the bi-metric type.

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