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Thermal reaction norms of growth in Atlantic and Pacific silverside fishes

Authors
Publisher
PANGAEA
Publication Date
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1594/pangaea.773233
Keywords
  • [% Body Dw] Of Brine Shrimp Nauplii Dry Weight As A Percentage Of Fish Body Dry Weight Over The Enti
  • 1 Standard Deviation Of Mean Tl At Beginning Of Experimental Period
  • 1 Standard Deviation Of Mean Tl At End Of Experimental Period
  • 1 Standard Deviation Of Mean Wet Weight At Beginning Of Experimental Period
  • 1 Standard Deviation Of Mean Wet Weight At End Of Experimental Period
  • Blotted Wet Weight In Milligrams
  • Consmpt
  • Consumption
  • Eff Conv
  • Efficiency Of Conversion
  • Either 1
  • 2
  • Or 3: Replicates Were 20L Rearing Containers
  • Either 1 Or 2
  • Corresponding To The Years Of Experiment
  • Either 1 Or 2 For M
  • Menidia (I
  • E
  • An Particular Experimental Trial Was Repeated)
  • This Is Always 1 For A
  • Affinis
  • Exp
  • Experiment
  • Fish Body Dw Weight Increase As A Percentage Of Brine Shrimp Nauplii Dry Weight Consumed
  • Geographic Names
  • Us States
  • Where Populations Were Sampled
  • Ind
  • Individuals
  • Length
  • Standard Deviation
  • Length
  • Total
  • L Std Dev
  • Mass
  • Mean End
  • Average Total Length (Mm) At The End Of The Experimental Period
  • Mean End
  • Average Wet Weight (Mg) At The End Of The Experimental Period
  • Mean Start
  • Average Total Length (Mm) At The Beginning Of The Experimental Period
  • Mean Start
  • Average Wet Weight (Mg) At The Beginning Of The Experimental Period
  • N
  • Origin
  • Popul
  • Population
  • Population Number Ranked By Latitude From South The North
  • Replicates
  • Running Number For Individual Fish Within Each Replicate Container
  • Sal
  • Salinity
  • Sample 0=Ini
  • 1=End
  • Denotes Either The Beginning Or The End Of The Experimental Period
  • When Random Subset Of Larvae Were Sacrificed For Length And Weight Measurements
  • Sample Type
  • Sampling Date
  • Samp Type
  • Set
  • Species
  • Temp
  • Temperature
  • Rearing
  • Temperature
  • Water
  • The Date
  • When Offspring Was Sacrificed In The Laboratory
  • This Is Always 1 For A
  • Affinis
  • Tl
  • Topsmelt Silverside (Atherinops Affinis)
  • Topsmelt Silverside (Atherinops Affinis) Or Atlantic Silverside (Menidia Menidia)
  • Total Length Measured Either Digitally From Calibrated Pictures Or By Using Calipers
  • T Rear
  • Wet M
  • Wet Mass
  • Wet Mass
  • Standard Deviation
  • Wet M Std Dev
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Logic

Abstract

How organisms may adapt to rising global temperatures is uncertain, but concepts can emerge from studying adaptive physiological trait variations across existing spatial climate gradients. Many ectotherms, particularly fish, have evolved increasing genetic growth capacities with latitude (i.e. countergradient variation (CnGV) in growth), which are thought to be an adaptation primarily to strong gradients in seasonality. In contrast, evolutionary responses to gradients in mean temperature are often assumed to involve an alternative mode, 'thermal adaptation'. We measured thermal growth reaction norms in Pacific silverside populations (Atherinops affinis) occurring across a weak latitudinal temperature gradient with invariant seasonality along the North American Pacific coast. Instead of thermal adaptation, we found novel evidence for CnGV in growth, suggesting that CnGV is a ubiquitous mode of reaction-norm evolution in ectotherms even in response to weak spatial and, by inference, temporal climate gradients. A novel, large-scale comparison between ecologically equivalent Pacific versus Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) revealed how closely growth CnGV patterns reflect their respective climate gradients. While steep growth reaction norms and increasing growth plasticity with latitude in M. menidia mimicked the strong, highly seasonal Atlantic coastal gradient, shallow reaction norms and much smaller, latitude-independent growth plasticity in A. affinis resembled the weak Pacific latitudinal temperature gradient.

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