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Immunological factors affecting tumour growth.

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A Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers N at io na l C an ce r I ns tit ut e U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health A Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers Cancers Affecting Adolescents and Young Adults (AYAs) An estimated 67,500 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15–39 were diagnosed with cancer in 2010.1 This is almost six times the number of cases diagnosed in children ages 0–14. The incidence of specific cancer types varies dramatically across the AYA age continuum. For example, leukemia, lymphoma, and testicular cancer (germ cell tumors) are the most common cancer types in younger AYAs (15–24 years old). By ages 25–39, breast, cervical and uterine, and colorectal cancers comprise a growing share of cancers among AYAs.2 See Cancers in Young People to learn more. 1 2 An estimated projection calculated by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program using SEER 18, 2006–2010. Data from the SEER Program. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Ages 20–24Ages 15–19 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Ages 35-39Ages 30-34Ages 25-29 Incidence, Mortality, and Survival Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in the AYA population; among females, it is the most common disease-related cause of death, and among males it is second only to heart disease.3 In the AYA age group, only accidents, suicide, and homicide claim more lives than cancer. Incidence rates of cancers in AYAs vary by race and ethnicity. Rates of both cancer incidence and 5-year survival are highest among white AYAs. American Indian/Alaska Native AYAs have the lowest cancer incidence rates. African Americans have intermediate incidence rates and the lowest 5-year survival rates. Unlike improvements seen in younger and older age groups, survival rates for young people (AYAs) with some types of cancer have not improved in almost 30 years. Factors that may

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