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The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

Thin Solid Films
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.06.023
  • Copper
  • Electroless Deposition
  • Seed Layer
  • Polyethylene Glycol
  • Bis(3-Sulfopropyl) Disulfide


Abstract The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98nm), and good adhesion strength.

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