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Biogenic opal and carbonate concentration in late Neogene sediments of ODP Site 114-704

Publication Date
DOI: 10.1594/pangaea.754800
  • 114-704
  • 114-704A
  • 114-704B
  • Age
  • Maximum/Old
  • Age
  • Minimum/Young
  • Age Max
  • Age Min
  • Age Model
  • Bsio2
  • Caco3
  • Calcium Carbonate
  • Calculated
  • Color Change
  • Color Desc
  • Color Description
  • Comment
  • Composite Core
  • Coulometrics Carbon Analyzer
  • Cum Offset
  • Cumulative Offset
  • Datum Level
  • Depth
  • Bottom/Max
  • Depth
  • Composite Bottom
  • Depth
  • Composite Top
  • Depth
  • Top/Min
  • Depth Bot
  • Depth C Bot
  • Depth C Top
  • Depth Top
  • Dl
  • D-Laad = Diatom Last Abundant Appearance Datum
  • D-Lad = Diatom Last-Appearance Datum
  • D-Faad = Diatom First Abundant Appearance Datum
  • D-Fad = Diatom First-Appearance Datum
  • P = Paleomagnetics
  • Drilling
  • Intercore Correlation
  • Joides Resolution
  • Label
  • Leg114
  • Ocean Drilling Program
  • Odp
  • Odp Sample Designation
  • Opal
  • Biogenic Silica
  • Opal
  • Extraction
  • Mortlock & Froelich
  • 1989
  • Sample Code/Label
  • Sedimentation Rate
  • Sed Rate
  • South Atlantic Ocean
  • Terr
  • Terrigeneous
  • Earth Science


A preliminary composite depth section was generated for Site 704 by splicing Holes 704A and 704B together over the interval 0-350 mbsf (0-9 m.y.). High-resolution carbonate and opal data from the cores were correlated with the calcium and silicon signals from the GST logging run in Hole 704B to identify missing and disturbed intervals in the cores. Paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic age boundaries were then transferred to the composite depth records to obtain an age model, and sedimentation rates were calculated by linear interpolation between datums. Algorithms relating measured dry-bulk density to carbonate content and depth were generated to produce predicted values of density for every sample. Accumulation rates of bulk, carbonate, opal, and terrigenous sediment components were then computed to generate a record of sediment deposition on the Meteor Rise that has a resolution of better than 200,000 yr for the period from 8.6 to 1.0 m.y. From 8.6 to 2.5 m.y., bulk-accumulation rates on the Meteor Rise averaged less than 2 g/cm**2/1000 yr and were dominated by carbonate deposition. The first significant opal deposition (6.0 m.y.) punctuated a brief (less than 0.6 Ma) approach of the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) northward that heralded a period of increasing severity of periodic carbonate dissolution events (terrigenous maxima) that abruptly terminated at 4.8 m.y. (base of the Thvera Subchron), synchronous with the reflooding of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. From 4.8 to 2.5 m.y., carbonate again dominated deposition, and the PFZ was far south except during brief northward excursions bracketing 4.2-3.9, 3.3-2.9, and 2.8-2.7 m.y. At 2.5 m.y., all components of bulk-accumulation rates increased dramatically (up to 15 g/cm2/1000 yr), and by 2.4 m.y., a pattern of alternating, high-amplitude carbonate and opal cyclicity marked the initiation of rapid glacial to interglaci·l swings in the position of the PFZ, synchronous with the "onset" of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Both mass-accumulation rates and the amplitude of the cycles decreased by about 2 m.y., but opal accumulation rates remained high up through the base of the Jaramillo (0.98 m.y.). From 1.9 to 1 m.y., the record is characterized by moderate amplitude fluctuations in carbonate and opal. This record of opal accumulation rates is interpreted as a long-term "Polar Front Indicator" that monitors the advance and retreat of the opal-rich PFZ northward (southward) toward (away from) the Meteor Rise in the subantarctic sector of the South Atlantic Ocean. The timing of PFZ migrations in the subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean is remarkably similar to Pliocene-Pleistocene climate records deduced from benthic oxygen isotope records in the North Atlantic Ocean (Raymo et al., 1989, doi:10.1029/PA004i004p00413; Ruddiman et al., 1989, doi:10.1029/PA004i004p00353). These include northward migrations during "cold" intervals containing strong glacial isotope stages (2.4-2.3, 2.1-2.0, 1.95-1.55, 1.45-1.30 m.y. and at about 1.13 and 1.09 m.y.) and southward migrations during "warm" intervals containing weak glacial and/or strong interglacial stages (2.45-2.40, 2.30-2.10, 2.00-1.95, 1.52-1.45, 1.30-1.18, 1.11, and 1.06-0.93 m.y.). Although our preliminary composite record is not continuous (some stages are obviously missing), there is hope that future work will identify these missing intervals in the as yet incomplete Hole 704B and will extend this high-resolution Southern Hemisphere climate record back to 8.6 m.y.

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