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Phase I Trial of Everolimus Plus Sorafenib for Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Cancer

Elsevier Inc.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clgc.2011.11.002
  • Clear Cell Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer
  • Combination Therapy
  • Everolimus
  • Renal Cell Cancer
  • Sorafenib
  • Biology
  • Medicine


Abstract Background Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, and sorafenib, a RAF kinase inhibitor, has shown efficacy in renal cell cancer (RCC) as single agents. We conducted a phase I study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of combining these agents for potential additive or synergistic effects when treating progressive metastatic RCC (mRCC). Patients and Methods The 15 patients enrolled in the study had predominantly clear cell RCC (cRCC) and progressive measurable disease with previous treatment that included immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and/or everolimus. Patients received daily everolimus and twice-daily sorafenib at escalating dose levels of 2.5 mg/400 mg (cohort 1), 5 mg/400 mg (cohort 2), and 10 mg/400 mg (cohort 3), and they were evaluated weekly for toxicity and every 8 weeks for response, using computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) and CT at baseline and at first staging. Results In cohort 1, 2 of 6 patients experienced dose-limited toxicity (DLT) of thrombocytopenia/leukopenia and pneumonitis. In cohort 2, 1 of 6 patients experienced a DLT of pulmonary embolism, and the 3 patients in cohort 3 experienced no DLTs. The MTD was 10 mg/400 mg. Common adverse events included grade 1/2 hand-foot syndrome. Using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), 1 patient achieved a pathologic complete response (CR), 1 patient achieved a radiographic CR, and 1 patient achieved a surgical CR. Seven patients achieved stable disease; 10 patients had decreased fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Median progressive-free survival was 5.6 months; overall survival was 7.9 months. Conclusion The MTD of daily everolimus 10 mg and twice-daily sorafenib 400 mg is safe and effective for progressive mRCC.

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