Abstract Forty-one complete mandibular subperiosteal implant-supported and retained dentures were consecutively inserted between 1952 and 1971, and patients were monitored through 1992. After variables and methods of follow-up were described, the implants were divided into three categories: 14 (34%) nonfunctional implants, 9 (22%) functioning implants, and 18 (44%) functional implants prematurely terminated by death or cause unrelated to implant condition. Five percent of the implants failed by 5 years, 22% failed by 10 years, 34% failed by 20 years, and none failed after 20 years. Nine implants were still functioning 21 to 36 years after insertion, of which five were functioning for more than 30 years. The implants that were developed later were notably superior to earlier implants. The results of this review could be interpreted to suggest consideration of mandibular subperiosteal implants for selected patients, particularly those with resorbed mandibles.