Although research of parenting shows that parental behaviour affects children’s development, very few investigations have examined what determines the parental behaviour of mothers and fathers. This study examines the contribution of some personal (parental psychopathological symptoms), gender of the child (child characteristics) and contextual determinants of parental behaviour of both mothers and fathers (marital locus of control, marriage satisfaction, education level and employment status of parents) in explaining some specific dimensions of parental behaviour (e.g. emotionality, psychological control and behavioural control). The investigation included 204 parents (102 mothers and 102 fathers). The results of this study showed the importance of the child's gender and marital locus of control in explaining father's parental behaviour and child's gender, marital locus of control and psychopathological symptoms in explaining the mother's parental behaviour.