Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative glaucoma in children who have cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Setting: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Methods: The incidence of glaucoma of all etiologies was evaluated in 45 eyes of 37 selected consecutive patients aged 1 to 18 years who had cataract extraction and posterior chamber IOL implantation from 1991 to 1994. Mean follow-up was 23 months (range 6 to 38 months). Nineteen patients had traumatic and 18 had developmental cataract. Exclusion criteria were microcomea smaller than 9.0 mm in diameter, preoperative glaucoma, or poor pupil dilation. The surgical technique comprised a continuous curvilinear anterior capsulorhexis in most cases, extracapsular aspiration by Ocutomes® or phacoemulsification, and retention of the posterior capsule. A peripheral iridectomy was done in 7 eyes (16%). Postoperative medications included topical atropine combined with topical, subconjunctival, and systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics. Results: Three patients with traumatic cataract developed postoperative glaucoma during the follow-up. One developed pseudophakic pupillary block; however, a peripheral iridectomy prevented glaucoma. Two other patients developed lateonset glaucoma: one secondary to angle recession and the other to peripheral anterior synechias. No patient with developmental cataract developed glaucoma. Conclusion: Careful patient selection, atraumatic surgical technique, continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, in-the-bag IOL placement, postoperative atropine, and topical and systemic corticosteroids significantly lower the incidence of pseudophakic pupillary block and glaucoma. Although no patient developed glaucoma, lifelong follow-up is mandatory to detect chronic open-angle and traumatic angle-recession glaucoma.