The implementation of new techniques of imaging in the daily practice of the radiation oncologist is a major advance in these last 10 years. This allows optimizing the therapeutic intervals and locoregional control of the disease while limiting side effects. Among them, positron emission tomography (PET) offers an opportunity to the clinician to obtain data relative to the tumoral biological mechanisms, while benefiting from the morphological images of the computed tomography (CT) scan. Recently hybrid PET/CT has been developed and numerous studies aimed at optimizing its use in the planning, the evaluation of the treatment response and the prognostic value. The choice of the radiotracer (according to the type of cancer and to the studied biological mechanism) and the various methods of tumoral delineation, require a regular update to optimize the practices. We propose throughout this article, an exhaustive review of the published researches (and in process of publication) until December 2011, as user guide of PET/CT in all the aspects of the modern radiotherapy (from the diagnosis to the follow-up): biopsy guiding, optimization of treatment planning and dosimetry, evaluation of tumor response and prognostic value, follow-up and early detection of recurrence versus tumoral necrosis. In a didactic purpose, each of these aspects is approached by primary tumoral location, and illustrated with representative iconographic examples. The current contribution of PET/CT and its perspectives of development are described to offer to the radiation oncologist a clear and up to date reading in this expanding domain.