Abstract Standardized techniques that allow the direct identification of tumor antigens are now available. Several murine antigens recognized by T cells have already been identified. So far, the majority of these antigens derive from cellular proteins similar to those that give rise to human tumor antigens. While many of the known human tumor antigens are widely shared, most of the murine tumor antigens appear to be unique to the individual tumor from which they were isolated. Nonetheless, common features between murine and human tumor antigens are emerging, suggesting that these murine antigens will provide essential tools in the evaluation of antigen-based vaccines for the future treatment of cancer.