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Offenders as Victims of Crime? An Investigation into the Relationship between Criminal Behaviour and Victimisation



Criminals as Victims of Crime.PDF 1 OFFENDERS AS VICTIM S OF CRIM E? AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIPBETW EEN CRIM INAL BEHAVIOUR AND VICTIM ISATION$ Derek Deadm an and Ziggy M acDonald* Public Sector Econom ics Research Centre Departm ent of Econom ics University of Leicester October 2001 Abstract In this paper we consider the association between victimisation and offending behaviour using data from the Youth Lifestyles Survey. W e consider the impact of violent, non-violent and persistent offending on the probability of being a victim of violent and non-violent crime and find a positive association between these using univariate probit estimates. However, taking into account the endogenous nature of offending and victimisation via a bivariate probit model, we find that univariate estimates understate the association. W e suggest that policy recommendations should only be based on the bivariate analysis of the association between offending and victimisation. K eywords: Victims of Crime, Offenders, Bivariate Probit JEL Classification: K42 $ W e are grateful to the Hom e Office for providing access to the Youth Lifestyles Survey, and to Ian Bradley, Kevin Lee, Steve Pudney and PSERC sem inar participants at Leicester for helpful com m ents and suggestions. All errors and om issions are entirely our responsibility. * Corresponding author: em ail ziggy.m acdonald@ 2 1. Introduction In this paper we consider some relatively unexplored factors relating to the determinants of crime victimisation. The identification of characteristics of individuals or firms that suffer disproportionate risks of being victims of crime is a long established area of research. One defect of this literature is that it overwhelmingly portrays victims and offenders as separate groups from within the population. However, there has recently been a small number of studies of violent offenders which have challenged this overly simplistic v

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