Abstract 1. (1) In 1,000 singleton births of European and African babies in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, the average birth weights are 6.9 and 6.3 lb. respectively. 2. (2) Male babies have a higher average birth weight than females in both races. 3. (3) Applying the international standard of prematurity 5.9 per cent. of European and 16.6 per cent. of African singletons are premature. 4. (4) Arguments are advanced to lower the standard weight for assessment of prematurity in African babies.