Gender identity-conscious HR structures signal an organization’s perspective on gender diversity. The signal produces perceptions that the organization values gender diversity leading to a gender diverse workforce. In turn, a gender diverse workforce provides a firm with a competitive advantage which should result in higher performance. This paper tests the mediating effects of gender diversity (at non-management and management levels) in the relationship between gender identity-conscious HR structures and performance. The findings indicate that non-management gender diversity partially mediates the relationship between HR structures and productivity, and management gender diversity partially mediates the relationship between HR structures and perceived market performance.