INTRODUCTION: No therapeutic approach has significantly impacted the progression of diabetes. As early improvement of glicaemic control is observed after bariatric surgeries, there is currently a search for surgical procedures that can promote euglycemia also in non-obese patients. Glicaemic control can be achieved by increasing the blood concentration of GLP-1, a hormone produced by L cells that are more densely concentrated in the terminal ileum. The interposition of ileal segment to a more anterior region (proximal jejunum) can promote a greater stimulation of the L cells by poorly digested food, increasing the production of GLP-1 and reflecting on glicaemic control. AIMS: To investigate long-term histological modifications of intestinal mucosa of rats submitted to interposition of ileum segment to a proximal region (jejunum). METHODS: Forty 8-week old male Wistar-EPM1 rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: the Interposition Group (IG) was subjected to ileal interposition, the Sham Group (SG) was subjected to sham operations, and the Control Group (CG) was not subjected to surgery. All animals were followed until the 60th postoperative day (8 postoperative week) when they were euthanized. Segments of jejunum and ileum from all groups were collected and analyzed by optical microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No structural nor histological changes in intestinal L cells in the interposed intestinal segment and other intestinal segments were noted after ileal interposition surgery. CONCLUSION: As L cells endocrine characteristics were likely maintained, the use of metabolic surgical techniques for the treatment of metabolic diseases, especially diabetes, seems to be justified.