The rapid growth of satellite services using higher frequency bands such as the Ka-band has highlighted need for analyzing effects of different propagation phenomena. Since the wavelength of radiowaves is comparable with the size of rain drops, rain attenuation is the dominant propagation impairment at Ka frequencies. In addition, other impairments such as gaseous absorption, cloud and fog attenuation, tropospheric refractive effects, as well as depolarization become increasingly important with increasing operating frequency. Theoretical background of radiowave propagation principles, rain systems and gases in the atmosphere are presented to insure comprehension of propagation effects on space communication in Ka-band. Models for predicting rain attenuation and other propagation impairments along Earth-satellite path are provided in order to simplify design of communication systems. Propagation phenomena are explained on example of three propagation experiments performed in U.S., Europe and Japan. Whenever possible, mitigation techniques to overcome severe attenuations are introduced.