We compared genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplified omp1 gene with serotyping by dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) to determine the suitability of RFLP analysis for epidemiologic study. Fifteen prototypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and 30 clinical isolates were used in this study. To serotype with dot-ELISA, chlamydia antigen was spotted onto a series of replicate nitrocellulose membrane patches and reacted with 11 mAbs that distinguish the 15 known serovars of C. trachomatis. For RFLP analysis, the amplified chlamydia omp1 gene was digested with AluI to differentiate serovars A to K and L1 to L3. Serovars of C, H, I, J, and L3 were further typed by RFLP analysis after digestion with HinfI, and a combination of EcoRI and DdeI. PCR-based RFLP could identify serotype of 28 among 30 clinical isolates tested. The remaining two untypical isolates were probably due to double infections or mechanical transferring error. Serotyping of C. trachomatis isolates shows that serovars E, D, F, and H are the most prevalent types found in urogenital samples in Korea. In this study, we show that RFLP analysis of amplified omp1 gene may be useful in genotyping C. trachomatis isolates.