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CYP121, CYP51 and associated redox systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: towards deconvoluting enzymology of P450 systems in a human pathogen.

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  • Biology
  • Chemistry

Abstract

bst554.dvi 1178 Biochemical Society Transactions (2006) Volume 34, part 6 CYP121, CYP51 and associated redox systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: towards deconvoluting enzymology of P450 systems in a human pathogen K.J. McLean*1, A.J. Dunford*, M. Sabri*, R. Neeli*, H.M. Girvan*, P.R. Balding*, D. Leys†, H.E. Seward‡, K.R. Marshall‡ and A.W. Munro* *Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7ND, U.K., †Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7ND, U.K., and ‡Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, The Henry Wellcome Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, U.K. Abstract An extraordinary array of P450 (cytochrome P450) enzymes are encoded on the genome of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and in related mycobacteria and actinobacteria. These include the first characterized sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51), a known target for azole and triazole drugs in yeasts and fungi. To date, only two Mtb P450s have been characterized in detail: CYP51 and CYP121. The CYP121 P450 shows structural relationships with P450 enzymes involved in synthesis of polyketide antibiotics. Both P450s exhibit tight binding to a range of azole drugs (e.g. clotrimazole and fluconazole) and the same drugs also have potent effects on growth of mycobacteria (but not of e.g. Escherichia coli). Atomic structures are available for both Mtb CYP51 and CYP121, revealing modes of azole binding and intriguing mechanistic and structural aspects. This paper reviews our current knowledge of these and the other P450 systems in Mtb including recent data relating to the reversible conversion of the CYP51 enzyme between P450 (thiolate-co-ordinated) and P420 (thiol-co-ordinated) species on reduction of the haem iron in the absence of a P450 substrate. The accessory flavoprotein and iron–sulfur proteins r

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