Abstract Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1) is a pathogen causing flacherie disease in silkworms. BmDNV-1 multiplies only in the nuclei of the columnar cells of larval midgut epithelium. Although several immunohistochemical studies using anti-BmDNV-1 antibody have been reported to date, sequential pathological changes in BmDNV-1-infected larvae have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, sequential investigations were performed on the pathological features of BmDNV-1-infected larvae and BmDNV-1 propagation. Oral infection experiments using newly ecdysed 4th instar larvae revealed that the larvae began to die 9days post infection (dpi), and the remaining died 10dpi. Histological observations revealed phenotypic alterations in the midgut cells from 4dpi, and complete disruption of the midgut structure at 9dpi. Quantitative RT-PCR of two BmDNV-1 genes indicated that BmDNV-1 began to propagate from 4dpi, and gradually increased until the larvae died. These expression patterns revealed marked correlation with the histological changes observed in the virus-infected midgut cells. Moreover, bioassays using larvae at various developmental stages clearly indicated that the pathogenicity of this virus is not dependent on the larval stage or the molting process.