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Blood Pressure, Proteinuria, and Phosphate as Risk Factors for Progressive Kidney Disease: A Hypothesis

Authors
Journal
American Journal of Kidney Diseases
0272-6386
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
62
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.02.379
Keywords
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Blood Pressure
  • Proteinuria
  • Phosphate
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Medicine

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 500 million people worldwide and is increasingly common in both industrialized and emerging countries. Although the mechanisms underlying the inexorable progression of CKD are incompletely defined, recent discoveries may pave the way to a more comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD progression and the development of new therapeutic strategies. In particular, there is accumulating evidence indicating a key role for the complex and yet incompletely understood system of divalent cation regulation, which includes phosphate metabolism and the recently discovered fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23)/klotho system, which seems inextricably associated with vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this review is to discuss the links between high blood pressure, proteinuria, phosphate levels, and CKD progression and explore new therapeutic strategies to win the fight against CKD.

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