Florence Devenne, «La Garde nationale», creation and evolution (1789-1792). The national Guard is certainly one of the least well-known revolutionary institutions. This article aims at destroying a few preconceived ideas about the so- called non-existence of a rural National Guard. The author establishes a certain number of milestones in their development through the study of administrative and statutory texts and through the analysis of the débats of the Constituante and the Legislative assemblies. The article also uses the indications furnished by Anatoli Ado's yet unpublished thesis concerning the activity of the National Guard in the provinces. This makes it possible to follow the institutionalization of the National Guard between August 1789 and December 1791, then its development into an army of the communes between January and August 1792. The ambiguity of its double role both as a repressive force and as revolutionary one is emphasized in its development throughout the period.