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Host-Pathogen Interactions of Retroviruses

Molecular Biology International
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1155/2012/648512
  • Editorial
  • Biology


Hindawi Publishing Corporation Molecular Biology International Volume 2012, Article ID 648512, 4 pages doi:10.1155/2012/648512 Editorial Host-Pathogen Interactions of Retroviruses Abdul A. Waheed,1 Abraham L. Brass,2 Suryaram Gummuluru,3 and Gilda Tachedjian4, 5, 6 1Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA 2Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA 3Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA 4Center for Virology, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia 5Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia 6Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia Correspondence should be addressed to Abdul A. Waheed, [email protected] Received 30 August 2012; Accepted 30 August 2012 Copyright © 2012 Abdul A. Waheed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Retroviruses, such as HIV-1, are enveloped RNA viruses that use the enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) to make a DNA copy of their RNA genome during replication in the host cell. The retrovirus life cycle is generally divided into two distinct phases: the early and late phase. The early phase encompasses virion entry into the host cell, reverse transcription of the viral RNA, nuclear import of the pre- integration complex (PIC), and integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome. The late phase involves transcription of viral DNA to multiple copies of viral RNA, translation of viral proteins, trafficking of viral proteins and genome to assembly sites, budding of viral particles, and, finally, maturation. A number of host factors have been implicated in specific steps of virus replication, and i

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