Publisher Summary This chapter explores a broad portion of programming concepts and discusses what variables are and how they differ from variables in previous versions of Visual Basic. Of significance is the new ability to initialize a variable when it is declared. Another significant change is that the Variant data type is no longer available. In previous versions of Visual Basic, when a variable was not given a data type, it was implicitly declared as a Variant data type. In Visual Basic .NET, the Object data type is the default developing applications, one cannot just write lines of code that will always be executed. One should be able to change the flow of execution based on specified conditions. Arrays are used to store multiple items of the same data type in a single variable. When developing applications, one should be able to dynamically set the flow of a program's execution. There are several programming fundamentals that allow one to control the flow of execution. The chapter also describes the syntax and usage for decision making and looping.