Publisher Summary This chapter is a compendium of potential groundwater monitoring activities. The identified list of monitoring activities is not envisioned as universally applicable to western surface coal mine sites. Monitoring recommendations for each source are independently developed in this book to allow the user to obtain those recommendations that are relevant to his mine site. The chapter explains groundwater monitoring methodology. Planning and exploration is further explained. In planning for mining and reclamation of a coal property, a number of geographic and geologic factors must be considered, climatic conditions, including rainfall, temperature, and other weather conditions, may affect the physical characteristics of the earth materials that must be handled, the types of equipment required, annual working days, general efficiency of the operation, and reclamation practices. Furthermore, mining and reclamation is also explained.