Abstract Macrophage chemotactic activity (MCA) is generated in situ in peritoneal inflammatory exudates induced by antigens of the intracellular parasite, Listeria monocytogenes. Chemotactic and chemokinetic activity is formed locally in response to an immunologically specific signal. In rats that have been immunized adoptively with thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) from specifically immunized donors, the production of MCA depends upon stimulation by LMA of exudate-seeking S-phase lymphocytes of their progeny. The sequential appearance, increase, and subsequent decline of MCA in the peritoneal cavity parallels the influx of lymphocytes and precedes maximal recruitment of labeled monocytes from the blood. The MCA response in peritoneal exudates induced in adoptively immunized rats correlates with the level of macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity and at sites of LMA injection in the pinna of the ear. The results suggest that MCA is released locally by antigen-activated lymphocytes and imply that the factor(s) concerned has a purposeful role in the host's defense by promoting the rapid deployment and/or retention of monocyte-derived macrophages in centers of infection.