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Digital Rectal Examination Standardization for Inexperienced Hands: Teaching Medical Students

Authors
Journal
Advances in Urology
1687-6369
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Publication Date
Volume
2013
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1155/2013/797096
Keywords
  • Clinical Study
Disciplines
  • Education
  • Medicine

Abstract

Objectives. To standardize digital rectal examination (DRE) and set how it correlates with the comprehensive evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods. After scaled standardization of DRE based on fingertips graphical schema: 10 cubic centimeters—cc for each fingertip prostate surface area on DRE, four randomly selected senior medical students examined 48 male patients presenting with LUTS in an outpatient clinical setting, totaling 12 DRE each. Standardized DRE, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), serum PSA, transabdominal ultrasound (US), urodynamic evaluation, and postvoid residue were compared. Results. The mean and median PVs were US—45 and 34.7 cc (5.5 to 155) and DRE—39 and 37.5 cc (15 to 80). Comparing DRE and US by simple linear regression: US PV = 11.93 + 0.85 × (DRE PV); P = 0.0009. Among patients classified as nonobstructed, inconclusive, and obstructed, the US PVs were 29.8, 43.2, and 53.6 cc (P = 0.033), and DRE PVs were 20, 35, and 60 cc (P = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion. This is the first attempt to DRE standardization focusing on teaching-learning process, establishing a linear correlation of DRE and US PVs with only 12 examinations by inexperienced hands, satisfactorily validated in an outpatient clinical setting.

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