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Radiation hardness properties of full-3D active edge silicon sensors

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
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  • Mathematics
  • Physics


Full-three-dimensional (3D) pixel sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire silicon wafer, were fabricated at the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, Stanford, California, USA. They have 71-mu m-inter-electrode spacing, active edges and a compatible geometry to the ATLAS pixel detector readout electronics. Several samples were irradiated with neutrons to different doses up to an equivalent fluence of 8.6 x 10(15) n(1MeVeq) cm(-2). This corresponds to the integrated fluence expected after similar to 5 years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a luminosity of 10(35) cm(-2) s(-1) at 4 cm from the interaction point, where the ATLAS B-Layer is placed. Before and after irradiation, signals were generated by a 1060 nm infrared laser calibrated to inject a charge of 14 fC. This corresponds to similar to 3.5 minimum ionizing particles and should not perturb the charge status of the radiation-induced defects. After 8.6 x 10(15) n(1MeVeq) cm(-2) the signal collected was similar to 38% and corresponded to similar to 7200e(-) for a substrate thickness of 235 pm. Signal efficiency, radiation-induced leakage current and related damage parameters are discussed here and compared with simulations. Full-3D silicon detectors with active edges are being considered for forward proton tagging at the LHC, for the ATLAS pixel B-layer replacement and for the ATLAS pixel upgrade. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

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