Of the 140,000 survivors, at least 55 percent settled in New York City, but 45 percent of the immigrants went elsewhere. My study examines both groups through the national and New York refugee organizations that resettled Holocaust survivors; the United Service for New Americans (USNA) and the New York Association for New Americans (NYANA), respectively. By studying NYANA documents, this work brings to light the experience of the majority who stayed in New York City. Through USNA and local cooperating agencies' records, I also explore the experience in two other communities; Denver, Colorado and Columbia, South Carolina. Archival material such as agency case documents, contemporary journal articles by social workers, and oral testimonies are used. Particularly important are 350 survivor case files from this period which show how agency policy translated into treatment of the refugee clientele.