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B cell regulation of the anti-tumor response and role in carcinogenesis.

Authors
  • Schwartz, Marc1
  • Zhang, Yu2
  • Rosenblatt, Joseph D2
  • 1 Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St., CRB 610, Miami, FL 33136 USA.
  • 2 Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1120 NW 14th St., CRB 610, Miami, FL 33136 USA ; Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St., CRB 610, Miami, FL 33136 USA ; UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1120 NW 14th St., CRB 610, Miami, FL 33136 USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
2016
Volume
4
Pages
40–40
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s40425-016-0145-x
PMID: 27437104
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The balance between immune effector cells such as T cells and natural killer cells, and immunosuppressive Treg cells, dendritic, myeloid and monocytic sub-populations in the tumor microenvironment acts to calibrate the immune response to malignant cells. Accumulating evidence is pointing to a role for B cells in modulating the immune response to both solid tumors and hematologic cancer. Evidence from murine autoimmune models has defined B regulatory cell (Breg) subsets that express cytokines such as IL-10, TGF-β, and/or express immune regulatory ligands such as PD-L1, which can suppress T cell and/or natural killer cell responses. Multiple murine tumor models exhibit decreased tumor growth in B cell deficient or B cell depleted mice. In several of these models, B cells inhibit T cell mediated tumor immunity and/or facilitate conversion of T cells to CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regs, which act to attenuate the innate and/or adaptive antitumor immune response. Mechanisms of suppression include the acquisition of inhibitory ligand expression, and phosphorylation of Stat3, and induction of IL-10 and TGF-β, resulting in a Breg phenotype. Breg suppressive activity may affect diverse cell subtypes, including T effector cells, NK cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and/or tumor associated macrophages. B cells may also directly promote tumorigenesis through recruitment of inflammatory cells, and upregulation of pro-angiogenic genes and pro-metastatic collagenases. Breg infiltration has now been identified in a variety of solid tumor malignancies including but not limited to ovarian, gastric, non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic, esophageal, head and neck, and hepatocellular carcinomas. Increasing evidence suggests that recruitment of B cells and acquisition of suppressive activity within the tumor bed may be an important mechanism through which B cells may modulate innate and/or adaptive anti-tumor immunity. B cell depletion in the clinic using anti-CD20 antibodies and/or inhibitors of BTK and/or other signaling pathways, may be a useful strategy for augmenting the anti-tumor immune response.

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