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Aztreonam plus Clavulanate, Tazobactam, or Avibactam for Treatment of Infections Caused by Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria

  • Emeraud, Cécile
  • Escaut, Lelia
  • Boucly, Athénaïs
  • Fortineau, Nicolas
  • Bonnin, Rémy A.
  • Naas, Thierry
  • Dortet, Laurent
Published Article
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Apr 25, 2019
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00010-19
PMID: 30858212
PMCID: PMC6496057
PubMed Central


Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria are often extremely resistant, leading to a real therapeutic dead end. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of aztreonam in combination with ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, or amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae , MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and extremely drug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . First, we report two clinical cases, namely, a urinary tract infection caused by an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli isolate and a pulmonary infection caused by a S. maltophilia isolate efficiently treated with the association of aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Then, a total of 50 MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 3 MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates, and 5 extremely drug-resistant S. maltophilia isolates were used to test aztreonam susceptibility in combination with ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. The Etest strip superposition method was used to determine the MICs of the aztreonam/inhibitor combinations. According to CLSI breakpoints, aztreonam susceptibility was fully restored for 86%, 20%, and 50% of the MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates when combined with ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. In P. aeruginosa , the aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam combination was the most potent, even though the reduction in MICs was at most 2-fold. With the 5 S. maltophilia isolates, aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate were found to be equal (100% susceptibility). Overall, aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam was the most potent combination to treat infections caused by MBL producers compared with aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate and aztreonam-ceftolozane-tazobactam. However, in many cases aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to be as efficient as aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam, offering the main advantage to be markedly cheaper. We also confirmed the validity of Etest superpositions as a very simple method to determine MICs of aztreonam combinations.

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