Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria are often extremely resistant, leading to a real therapeutic dead end. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of aztreonam in combination with ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, or amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae , MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and extremely drug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . First, we report two clinical cases, namely, a urinary tract infection caused by an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli isolate and a pulmonary infection caused by a S. maltophilia isolate efficiently treated with the association of aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Then, a total of 50 MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 3 MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates, and 5 extremely drug-resistant S. maltophilia isolates were used to test aztreonam susceptibility in combination with ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. The Etest strip superposition method was used to determine the MICs of the aztreonam/inhibitor combinations. According to CLSI breakpoints, aztreonam susceptibility was fully restored for 86%, 20%, and 50% of the MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates when combined with ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. In P. aeruginosa , the aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam combination was the most potent, even though the reduction in MICs was at most 2-fold. With the 5 S. maltophilia isolates, aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate were found to be equal (100% susceptibility). Overall, aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam was the most potent combination to treat infections caused by MBL producers compared with aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate and aztreonam-ceftolozane-tazobactam. However, in many cases aztreonam-amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to be as efficient as aztreonam-ceftazidime-avibactam, offering the main advantage to be markedly cheaper. We also confirmed the validity of Etest superpositions as a very simple method to determine MICs of aztreonam combinations.