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Avaliação antibiofilme e anticariogênica de nanocompósitos formados por polifosfatos de sódio e flúor associados à nanopartículas de prata : estudo in vitro

Authors
  • Gouvêa, Carla Corrêa Mendes
Publication Date
May 04, 2018
Source
Repositório Institucional UNESP
Keywords
Language
Portuguese
License
Unknown
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize nanocomposites formed polyphosphates (sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) or sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)) and fluoride (F) associated with silv er nanoparticles. The anti - biofilm activity of the nanocomposites were evaluated against Candida albicans (ATCC ATCC 10231) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) . as well as their potential in inhibiting demineralization and increasing the remineralizatio n of dental enamel by in vitro pH cycling assay. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate (1 or 10%) by sodium bor ohydride (NaBH 4 ) in isopropylic medium containing sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) or sodium hexametap hosphate (HMP)) and fluoride (F) . The nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X - ray diffraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the nanocomposites was determined against planktonic cells of C. albicans and S. mutans . Eff ect iveness of preformed 24 - hour biofilms of nanocomposites at 1x and 10x MIC values was assessed by quantifying viable cells (CFUs), metabolic activity (XTT) and total biomass (Crystal Violet). The nanocomposites containing 10% Ag showed higher antimicrobia l effectiveness against both microorganisms compared to nanocomposites containing 1% silver. The S. mutans biofilm was more susceptible to the TMP or HMP - AgNP nanocomposites than the C. albicans biofilm, with respective reductions of 2.88 - 3.71 log 10 and 0. 45 - 1.43 log 10 . The nanocomposites allowed a reduction of about 75% of the total biomass and about 90% of the metabolic activity in both biofilms. For the in vitro evaluation of the anticaries potential, a new nanocomposite containing 0.2% TMP, 100 ppm fluo rine and 10% Ag was synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). B ovine enamel blocks (4 mm x 4 mm, n = 60) selected by initial surface hardness (SHi) were allocated in five groups (n=12): deionized water (Placebo ), 100 ppm F (1 00 F), 225 ppm F (225 F), 100 ppm F + 0.2% TMP (100 F / TMP) and 100 ppm F + 0.2% TMP + 10% Ag (100F / TMP / Ag). The blocks were treated 2x daily with the solutions and subjected to five pH cycles (deismineralizang and remineralizing solutions) at 37 ° C. Then, the final surface hardness (SHf) and integrated subsurface hardness ( Δ KHN), the concentration of fluoride (F) and calcium (Ca) in the enamel was determined. The effectiveness of this nanocomposite (100F / TMP / Ag) against the formation of single an d mixed biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and S . mutans (ATCC 25175) was evaluated by the count ing colony forming units (CFUs). Biofilms were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Similar values of % SH wer e observed for groups 225F, 100F /TMP and 100F/TMP Ag (p> 0.001). The 225F, 100F/TMP and 100F/TMP/Ag solutions showed capacity to reduce the lesion body (ΔKHN) in the depth of 5 - 20 μm. F concentration was similar in the enamel for the 100F/TMP/Ag and 225F (p> 0.001). The groups 100F, 225F, 100F/TMP and 100F/TMP/Ag presented the highest and the same concentration of Ca (p> 0.001). In relation to viable cells 100F/TMP/Ag nanocomposite promoted significant log reductions in the number of CFUs of S. mutans , of 5.42 and 4.46 log 10 respectivel y in single and mixed biofilms and C. albicans was mor e resistant. SEM images confirmed these results. The surface hardness (% SH) was similar in the samples treated with solutions containing 225F, 100F/TMP and 100F/TMP/ Ag (p> 0.001). In addition, the abil ity to reduce the lesion body (ΔKHN) was greater in 110F, 225F, 100F / TMP and 100F/TMP/ Ag (p <0.001) in zone A (5 - 20 μm) and in zone B only with 225F and 100F/TMP. The 100F/TMP/ Ag group showed greater demineralization in zone B (20 - 130 μm) (p <0.001). The F concentration of the 100F /TMP/ Ag solution was similar to 225F (p <0. 001). Groups 100F, 225F, 100F/ TMP and 100F /TMP/ Ag showed the highest and the same concentration of Ca (p> 0.001).Although the 100F/TMP/Ag solution yielded lower values of lesion deep ar eas than the solution containing 225 ppm F, but the nanocomposite was able to inhibit demineralization of surface of enamel. These compounds have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, especially against S. mutans , and can be considered a potenti al alternative for new dental bio materials , aiming at the prevention or treatment of carious lesions .

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