A semiautomated quantitative assay for rat serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme determination was developed, incorporating selective precipitation of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) with wheat germ lectin and differential inhibition with levamisole for determination of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IALP). The assays for each isoenzyme were linear over a broad range of activities. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation were less than 11% for all 3 isoenzymes. Dilution of serum with saline results in an artifactual overestimation of BALP activity. Comparison of ALP and ALP isoenzyme activity in rats of various ages showed that BALP activity drops dramatically with increasing age of rats. IALP activity is greater in immature rats compared to that in mature rats. While there was no difference between male and female rats at 4 wk of age with regard to total ALP activity and activity of any of the isoenzymes, total ALP activity and activity of the individual isoenzymes were higher in males than in females at most ages over 4 wk. Gavage with corn oil resulted in increased serum IALP activity, and bile duct ligation resulted in increased liver alkaline phosphatase activity. This combined assay for the 3 ALP isoenzymes in rat serum is an efficient means of analysis of large numbers of samples and should increase markedly the specificity of serum ALP activity in identifying the target organ in toxicologic studies when serum ALP activity is increased.