A sensitive, selective, and reproducible in-tube solid-phase microextraction and liquid chromatographic (in-tube SPME/LC-UV) method for determination of lidocaine and its metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) in human plasma has been developed, validated, and further applied to pharmacokinetic study in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjected to epidural anesthesia. Important factors in the optimization of in-tube SPME performance are discussed, including the draw/eject sample volume, draw/eject cycle number, draw/eject flow rate, sample pH, and influence of plasma proteins. The limits of quantification of the in-tube SPME/LC method were 50 ng/mL for both metabolite and lidocaine. The interday and intraday precision had coefficients of variation lower than 8%, and accuracy ranged from 95 to 117%. The response of the in-tube SPME/LC method for analytes was linear over a dynamic range from 50 to 5000 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9976. The developed in-tube SPME/LC method was successfully used to analyze lidocaine and its metabolite in plasma samples from pregnant women with GDM subjected to epidural anesthesia for pharmacokinetic study.