Autoantibodies to EEA1 have been described in patients with neurological diseases, subacute cutaneous lupus and a variety of other conditions, including a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). EEA1 is a hydrophilic peripheral membrane protein transiently associated with the cytoplasmic face of early endosomes. Antibodies to EEA1 produce a staining pattern that resembles the C-ANCA pattern produced by anti-proteinase 3 (PR3) antibodies in WG sera. Co-localization studies show incomplete overlap of the staining produced by anti-EEA1 with anti-PR3. We showed that 0/40 unselected sera, from a cohort of WG patients and antibodies to PR3, reacted with EEA1. In addition, 1/15 sera that have a C-ANCA staining pattern but do not react with PR3 in an ELISA, immunoprecipitated the recombinant EEA1 protein. We conclude that although antibodies to EEA1 produce a staining pattern that resembles anti-PR3 and C-ANCA, antibodies to EEA1 in WG are rare. However, some C-ANCA+ sera that do not react with PR3 may contain EEA1 autoantibodies.